History of sugar
Sugarloaf was a common form of sugar in the eighteenth century: a solid sugar cane that needed a sugar ax or hammer to break and sugar cane to cut into usable pieces.
Sugar was first introduced to sugarcane plants in India sometime after the first century AD. The origin of the word “sugar” is thought to be derived from the Sanskrit शर्करा (śarkarā), meaning “powdered sugar or sweet,” originally “grit, gravel”. Sanskrit texts from ancient India, dated between 1500 – 500 BC provide the earliest records of sugarcane cultivation and sugar production in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent.
The history of sugar has five main stages:
⦁ The extraction of sugarcane juice from the sugarcane plant, and subsequent crop farming in the tropics of India and Southeast Asia sometime around 4,000 BC.
⦁ The establishment of the production of sugarcane slices of sugarcane juice in India more than two thousand years ago, followed by the development of the refining of crystal particles in India in the early centuries AD.
⦁ The spread of sugarcane cultivation and production in the medieval Islamic world and some progress in production methods.
⦁ The widespread cultivation and production of sugarcane in the West Indies and the tropics of the Americas from the 16th century were followed by dramatic developments in its production in the 17th to 19th centuries in that part of the world.
⦁ Development of beet sugar, high fructose corn syrup, and other sugary ingredients in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Known around the world at the end of the midMiddlees, sugar was very expensive and was considered a “good spice”, but from about 1500, technological advances and resources in the New World began to convert it into a much cheaper quantity. Property
Spread of sugarcane cultivation
There are two sugarcane breeding centers: one by Saccharum officinarum by Papuans in New Guinea and Saccharum sinense by Austronesians in Taiwan and southern China. Papuans and Austronesians originally used sugarcane as a feed for pigs. Your spread of both S. officinarum and S. sinense is closely linked to the migration of Austronesians. Saccharum Barberi was cultivated only in India after the introduction of S. officinarum.
Origin centers of Saccharum
Map showing the origin centers of Saccharum officinarum in New Guinea, S. Sinensis in southern China and Taiwan, and S. Barberi in India; dotted arrows represent Austronesian entries Saccharum officinarum was first preserved in New Guinea and on the islands east of the Wallace Line by the Papuans, where it is the modern center of diversity. From about 6,000 BP they are selectively selected from the traditional Saccharum robustum. From New Guinea, it spread westward to an island in Southeast Asia after contact with the Austronesians, where it merged with the Saccharum spontaneum.
Southern China and Taiwan
The second home breeding center is in southern China and Taiwan where S. sinense was the main farmer of the Austronesian people. The names of the sugarcane found in the Proto-Austronesian languages of Taiwan have been renamed təbuS or CebuS, which became but in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian. It was one of the first large plants of the Austronesian people since at least 5,500 BP. Presentation of S. The delicious officinarum may have changed little by little throughout its cultivated range in Island Southeast Asia.
Southeast Asian island
From the Southeast Asian island, S. officinarum was distributed east of Polynesia and Micronesia by Austronesian travelers as a boiler plant at about 3,500 BP. It was also distributed west and north by about 3,000 BP to China and India by Austronesian traders, where it was reunited with Saccharum sinense and Saccharum Barberi. From there it spread to western Eurasia and the Mediterranean.
Sugarcane juice into crystalline crystals
India, where the process of refining sugarcane juice into crystalline crystals, was often visited by royal convoys (such as those from China) to learn about the cultivation and refining of sugar.  By the sixth century AD, the cultivation and processing of sugar had reached Persia, and from then on that knowledge was brought to the Mediterranean by Arab expansion. Wherever they went, the [medieval] Arabs brought with them sugar, product, and technology for their production.
The Spanish and Portuguese
The Spanish and Portuguese conquests and conquests of the fifteenth century carried sugar to the southwest of Iberia. Henry the Navigator introduced cane to Madeira in 1425, while the Spaniards, after conquering the Canary Islands, introduced sugarcane to them. In 1493, on his second voyage, Christopher Columbus carried sugarcane seedlings to the New World, especially Hispaniola. 
Early sugarcane use in India
Sugarcane originated in tropical IndIndiad Southeast Asia. Different species may have originated in different places S. Barberi is native to India and S. edule and S. officinarum originates in New Guinea.  Initially, people chewed raw cane to enhance its flavor. The Indians found a way to refine sugar during the Gupta dynasty, about 350 AD  although documentary evidence from Indian literature such as Artaxerxes in the 4th-3rd century BC shows that refined sugar was already produced in India.
Sugarcane cultivation methods
Indian sailors, buyers of refined butter and sugar, carry sugar in various forms of trade. Traveling Buddhist monks brought sugar concoctions to China. During the reign of Harsha (r. 606–647) in North India, Indian envoys to Tang China taught sugarcane cultivation methods after Emperor Taizhong of Tang (r. 626–649) made his interest in a sugar known, and China soon established the first. Sugarcane cultivation in the seventh century. Chinese literature confirms at least two machines went to India, founded in 647 AD, to acquire the technology there fining sugar. In India, the Middle East, and China, sugar became the staple food and dessert.
Early refining methods involved grinding or grinding sugarcane to extract the juice, then boiling the juice or drying it in the sun to produce a solid, sugary solid. The Sanskrit word for “sugar” (sharara) also means “stone” or “sand”. Similarly, the Chinese use the word “gravel sugar” (Traditional Chinese: 砂糖) in what the West knows as “table sugar”.
Prime Ministers in the British
In 1792, sugar prices rose in Great Britain. On March 15, 1792, his Prime Ministers in the British Parliament presented a report on the production of refined sugar in British India. Lieutenant J. Paterson, of the Presidency of Bengal, reported that refined sugar can be produced in India with many higher benefits, and much cheaper than in the West Indies. 
Sugarcane sugar in medieval Islamic State and Europe
The distribution of sugarcane westward in pre-Islamic times (shown in red), in medieval Muslim lands (green), and in the 15th century the Portuguese on the islands of Madeira, and the Spanish on the Canary Islands (western islands). African, surrounded by pink lines)
Knowledge of sugar
There are records of the knowledge of sugar among the ancient Greeks and Romans, but only as an imported medicine, not as a food. For example, the Greek physician Dioscorides of the first century (AD) wrote:
“There is a type of honey called saccharin [meaning sugar] found in reeds in India and Eudaemon Arabia [i.e. Yemen which is similar to salt. And is crumpled enough to break between teeth like salt. It is good for water that dissolves the intestines and stomach and can be taken as a drink to help [relieve] painful bladder and kidneys. “Pliny the Elder, a first-century Roman (AD) described sugar as a medicine: Teeth. It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut. Sugar is used for medicinal purposes only. ”
During the Middle Ages, Arab entrepreneurs embraced sugar production strategies in India and expanded the industry. Medieval Arabs in some cases established large fields with sugar mills or refineries. The sugarcane plant, found in tropical climates, needs both abundant water and high temperatures to thrive.
The cultivation of this plant spread throughout the medieval Arab world through artificial irrigation. Sugarcane was widely cultivated in Northern Europe during the Arab era in Sicily from the 9th century. In addition to Sicily, Al-Andalus (now southern Spain) was an important center of sugar production, dating back to the tenth century.
From the Arab world, sugar was exported throughout Europe. The value of imports increased in recent centuries in the Middle Ages as indicated by the increase in sugar consumption in Western literature in the Middle Ages. But sugarcane has always been an expensive import. Its value per pound in the 14th and 15th centuries in England was about the same as imported spices from Asian tropics such as mace (nutmeg), ginger, cloves, and peppers, which had to be transported across the Indian Ocean at that time.
Studies show the spread of sugarcane cultivation from its entry into Mesopotamia, then the Levant and the eastern Mediterranean islands, especially Cyprus, in the 10th century. He also notes that it spread along the East African coast to Zanzibar.
Religious militias brought sugar into Europe after their campaigns in the Holy Land, where they met caravans carrying “sweet salt.” At the beginning of the 12th century, Venice conquered some villages near Tire and established colonies for sugar production. For export to Europe, where honey is added as the only other available sugar.  Theologian William of Tire, writing in the late 12th century, described sugar as “the most valuable.
a product, much needed for use and human health “.
The first record of sugar in English dates back to the late 13th century.
Ponting tells of reliance on the enslavement of early European sugar traders:
The big problem with sugar production was that it needed more workers in growth and processing. Due to the heavyweight and charge amount of green sugarcane, it was very expensive to move, especially in the world, so each estate had to have its industry. When sugarcane had to be processed to extract the juices, they were boiled to concentrate, in a series of spinal cord-splitting operations and intensive surgery that lasted for hours.
However, once processed and concentrated, the sugar was extremely valuable in its quantity and could be traded long distances by ship at great profit. The [European sugar] industry started on a large scale only after the loss of the Levant to a reviving Islamic religion and the transformation of its production into Cyprus under a mixture of Crusader nobles and Venetian merchants. The locals in Cyprus spent most of their time growing their food and few would work in sugar mills.
So the owners brought in slaves from the Black Sea (and a few from Africa) to do most of the work. Demand for production and production was low and so was the slave trade – no more than a thousand people a year. It was not so great when sugar production began in Sicily.
In the Atlantic Ocean [Canaries, Madeira, and the Cape Verde Islands], when the initial exploitation of timber and immature material ceased, it soon became clear that sugar production would be the most profitable way to earn money in new places. . The problem was the hard work involved because the Europeans refused to work without management. The solution was to bring in slaves from Africa. Significant developments in the tra1440sn in the 1440s…
During the 1390s, a more efficient printing press was developed, doubling the amount of juice extracted from sugarcane and helping to propagate the sugar fields of Andalusia and the Algarve. It started in Madeira in 1455, using consultants from Sicily and (mostly) the Genoese capital of mills. Madeira’s accessibility attracted Genoese and Flemish traders who wanted to bypass Venetian players.
“By 1480 Antwerp had 70 merchant ships in Madeira, refining, and distribution cantered on Antwerp. 1480 saw an increase in sugar production in the Canary Islands. By 1490 Madeira had surpassed Cyprus as a sugar producer.”  African slaves also worked. In the sugar plantations of the Kingdom of Castile near Valencia.
Sugar Cultivation in the New World
Triangle trade – enslaved people were brought to the Caribbean Islands to grow and harvest sugarcane.
Portuguese take sugar to Brazil. In 1540, there were 800 sugarcane mills on the island of Santa Catarina and 2,000 others along the northern coast of Brazil, Demerara, and Surinam. The first sugar harvest took place in Hispaniola in 1501, and many sugar mills had been built in Cuba and Jamaica by the 1520s.
Some 3,000 small sugar mills built before 1550 in the New World created an unprecedented need for steel mills, levers, axles, and other implements. Trade-in mold making and metal casting have been developed in Europe due to the increase in sugar production. The invention of the sugar mill stimulated the development of technical skills needed for the emerging industrial revolution in the early 17th century. After 1625, the Dutch transported sugarcane from South America to the Caribbean islands, where it was grown from Barbados to the Virgin Islands.
Modern society often compares the value of sugar to the essential ingredients of musk, pearls, and spices. Sugar prices dropped sharply as their production increased widely in all European colonies. Once rich only, luxury consumption also increased among the poor. Sugar production is increasing in North America, Cuba, and Brazil. The workers initially included European workers and Native American slaves. However, European diseases such as smallpox and African diseases such as malaria and yellow fever quickly reduced the Native American population.
Europeans too were susceptible to malaria and yellow fever, and the availability of private labor was limited. African slaves became an important source of farmworkers, because they were able to withstand malaria and yellow fever, and because the supply of enslaved people abounded on the African coast.
Increased beet sugar
German pharmacists Andreas Sigismund Marggraf and Franz Karl Achard (pictured) both laid the foundation for the modern sugar industry.
A sugar refinery in Šurany (Slovakia) was founded in 1854 (photo from 1900).
Sugar was a luxury in Europe until the early 19th century, when it became widely available, due to the increase in beetroot sugar in Prussia, and later in France under Napoleon. Bitter sugar was an invention in Germany, as, in 1747, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf announced the discovery of sugar in beets and developed a method of using alcohol to extract it. Marggraf’s student, Franz Karl Achard, invented an industrial saving method to extract sugar in its purest form by the end of the 18th century. Achard began producing beet sugar in 1783 in Kaulsdorf.
In 1801, with the support of King Frederick William III of Prussia (1797-1840), the world’s first beetroot factory was established in Cunern, Silesia (then part of Prussia). Although not profitable, the plant remained active from 1801 until its destruction during the Napoleonic Wars (c. 1802-1815).
The work of Marggraf and Achard was the beginning of the sugar industry in Europe,  and in the modern sugar industry as a whole, as sugar was no longer a luxury and a product that was almost exclusively produced in a warm environment.
In France, Napoleon cut off Caribbean imports without British blockade, and at any time did not want to support British traders, banned the importation of sugar in 1813 and ordered the planting of 32,000 hectares by the beetle. The beetroot industry sprang up, especially after Jean-Baptiste Quéruel did the work of Benjamin Delessert.
The United Kingdom Beetroot Sugar Association
The United Kingdom Beetroot Sugar Association was founded in 1832 but efforts to establish a beetroot plant in the UK were not very successful. Sugar beet provided about 2/3 of the world’s sugar production in 1899. Forty-six percent of British sugar comes from Germany and Austria. Sugar prices in Britain plummeted in the late 19th century.
The British Sugar Beet Society was founded in 1915 and by 1930 there were 17 factories in England and one in Scotland, based under the provisions of the British Sugar (Subsidy) Act 1925. In 1935 domestic sugar accounted for 27.6% of British consumption. In 1929 109,201 people were employed in the British beetroot industry, with about 25,000 more workers.
By the early 18th century, sugar production was increasingly being mechanized. The steam engine first powered the sugar mill in Jamaica in 1768, and soon thereafter, steam replaced direct firing as a source of process heat.
Method of refining sugar
In 1813 the British chemist Edward Charles Howard invented a method of refining sugar that involved boiling cane juice, not in an open kettle, but in a closed steam-fired steamer and held under a vacuum section. With reduced pressure, boiling water at low temperatures, and improves both fuel savings and reduces the amount of sugar lost through caramelization. Another benefit of fuel-efficient use came from the highly effective evaporator, designed by United States engineer Norbert Rillieux (probably in the early 1820s, although the first operating model dates back to 1845). The system consisted of a series of vacuum pans, each held under lower pressure than before.
The steam from each pan was heated next, wasting a little heat. Modern industries use highly effective evaporators to evaporate water. The process of separating sugar from molasses also received mechanical attention: David Weston began using center fuge for this work in Hawaii in 1852.
A cyclamate-based sugar market sold in Canada.
In the United States and Japan, corn syrup with high fructose has replaced sugar in other products, especially in soft drinks and processed foods.
The process for the production of high fructose corn syrup was first developed by Richard O. Marshall and Earl R. Kooi in 1957. The industrial production process was refined by Drs. Y. Takasaki at the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan 1965-1970. High-fructose corn syrup was quickly introduced into many processed foods and soft drinks in the United States from about 1975 to 1985.
Sugar cost system
The sugar cost system and sugar standards set in 1977 in the United States significantly increase the cost of imported sugar and US manufacturers are looking for cheaper resources. High-fructose corn syrup, which is derived from corn, is very economical because of the U.S. sugar price. Domestic consumption doubles the global price  and the price of maize is kept low by government subsidies paid to farmers. High-fructose corn syrup has become a popular attraction, and popular with sugarcane sugar among many American food and beverage producers. Cold drink makers such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi use sugar from other countries but switched to high-fructose corn syrup in the United States in 1984. The average American consumed about 37.8 lb (17.1 kg) of fructose corn syrup in 2008, compared to 46.7 lb (21.2 kg) of sucrose.
Variety of health conditions
In recent years it has been suggested that increased consumption of fructose corn syrup in digested foods may be linked to a variety of health conditions, including metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and obesity. However, there is little evidence that high-fructose corn syrup is more unhealthy and calorie-free than sucrose or other simple sugars. Fructose and fructose content:
the glucose content of fructose corn syrup does not differ significantly from the specified apple juice. Some researchers think that fructose may trigger the process by which fat is formed, at a higher rate than other simple sugars. However, the most commonly used mixtures are fructose corn syrup