Flour is flour made from raw flour, roots, beans, nuts, or seeds. Flour is used to make many different foods. Grain flour, especially wheat flour, is a staple of bread, which is the staple food of many cultures. Corn flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times and remains a staple in American lands. Rye flour is a staple of bread in central and northern Europe.
Cereal flour combines endosperm, germ, and bran (whole-grain flour) or only endosperm (refined flour). Food may be divided into flour as it has the size of a coarse particle (food degree) or is similar to flour; the word is used in both ways. For example, the word cornmeal usually means grittier texture while corn flour refers to a fine powder, although no dividing line is included.
The US health center has warned against eating raw flour or batter. Crude flour can contain bacteria such as E. coli and needs to be cooked like any other food
The English word flour is originally a variant of the word flower, and both names are derived from Old French fleur or flour, which had a literal meaning of “flower”, and figurative meaning of “best”. The term fleur de farine meant “part of the best meal”, as flour was produced by the elimination of coarse materials and unwanted grains during digestion.
Archaeological evidence for making flour (seeds of wheat crushed between light millstones) dates back to at least 6000 BC. In 2018, archaeologists reported finding  evidence of bread making in Shubayqa 1, a Natufian hunting ground for more than 14,000 years northwest of the Jordan. The Romans were the first to grind grain into millstones. In 1786, at the beginning of the Industrial Era, the first steam-powered milling mill, Albion Mills, in Southwark, was completed in London.
In the 1931930some flour became rich in iron, niacin, thiamine, and riboflavin. In the 1941940sills began to enrich flour and folic acid was added to the list in the 1991990srchaeological evidence for making flour (seeds of wheat crushed between light millstones) dates back to at least 6000 BC. In 2018, archaeologists reported finding evidence of bread making in Shubayqa 1, a Natufian hunting ground for more than 14,000 years northwest of the Jordan. The Romans were the first to grind grain into millstones. In 1786, at the beginning of In the Industrial Era, the first steam mill, Albion Mills, in Southwark, was completed in London. In the 1930s, another flour became rich in iron, niacin,
Thiamine, and riboflavin. In the 19401940slls began to enrich the r and folic acid was added to the list in the 19901990s
A key issue for the sinoatrial revolution was the preservation of flour. Transport distances and slow distribution system colsystemsith the shelf life of the environment. The reason for the shelf health is limited to viral fatty acids, which react when the oxygen end. This happens when n grain is ground; fatty acids oxidize and flour begins to decompose. Depending on the weather and grain quality, this process takes six to nine months.
By the end of the 19th century, the process was too short for a production and distribution cycle. Since vitamins, micronutrients, and amino acids were either completely unknown or unknown in the late 19th century, disinfection was an effective solution. Without a virus, flour cannot rot. Melted flour became standard. The decline in germs began in densely populated areas and took about a generation to reach the rural areas. Heat flour is ground into a powder when the germ is first separated from the endosperm and bran, then ground into a steam, d heat or microwave oven and, ground into a powder again.
Flouring is done by grinding grain between stones or metal wheels.  Today, “rocky soil” generally refers to the grain that is crushed when crushed to a pulp by a rotating stone wheel that is more or less stable than the grain in the middle.
Country Modern mills
Roll mills recently replaced stone mills as flour production has historically driven technological advances, as efforts to make mills more productive and labor-intensive intensive have led to water mills and wind turbines. These terms are now widely used in the use of water and air energy for non-digestive purposes. More recently, the Unified milling machine, a type of milling machine, was developed in the mid-20th century.
Modern farm machinery allows farmers to make or grind all their products when it comes time to turn their grain crops into solid flour for livestock. This ability is important for the economy because the profit profits are often low enough for farming so savings are important for you to stay in business.
Flour contains a large portion of the starch, which is a component of complex carbohydrates also known as polysaccharides. The types of flour used in cooking include whole-grain flour (known as plain outside North America), explosive flour, and cake flour mixed with bleach flour. High protein makes the flour stronger and stronger, and it will produce shiny or chewed bread. The lower the protein the smoother the flour, and the better the cakes, cookies, and crust.
“Bleached flour” is “refined flour” with a white chemical agent (bleaching) added. “Refined” flour has become contaminated with bran, which contains nutritious fiber and vitamins, has been removed, and is often referred to as “white flour”.
Blended flour ages automatically using a “white” agent, a “growing” agent, or both. The bleaching agent affects the carotenoids that carry the natural color of the flour; the “growing” agent also affects gluten growth. The ripening agent may strengthen or weaken gluten growth.
The four most common additives used as bleaching / maturing agents in the US are:
• Potassium bromate, listed as an ingredient, is a maturing agent that enhances gluten growth. It’s not hot.
• Benzoyl peroxide is burned but does not act as a maturation agent. It has ndoes not affecten.
• Ascorbic acid is labeled as an ingredient, or as an indication that flour is matured using ascorbic acid or a small amount is added as a dough enhancer. It is a ripening agent that strengthens gluten growth but does not break down.
• Chlorine gas is used both as a lubricating agent and as a maturation agent. It impairs gluten growth and removes starch, making it easier for flour to absorb water and puff up, resulting in larger batter and firm dough. The occasional gluten-free texture is desirable for cakes, cookies, and biscuits, as it would make them firmer and more like bread. The modification of starch in flour allows the use of wet dough (to make a final product of the product) without damaging the structure needed for easy cakes, past,ries a biscbiscuitsuits.  Chlorine-rich flour allows cakes and other baked goods to set and absorb more quickly, and the oil will be evenly distributed, with minimal risk of decay.
Other chemicals used as powder treatment agents to change color and baking properties include:
• Chlorine dioxide (unstable to be shipped to the U.S.)
• Calcium peroxide
• Azodicarbonamide or azobisformamide (synthetic)
• Atmospheric oxygen causes environmental degradation.
Common preservatives for commercial flour include:
• Calcium propionate
• Sodium benzoate
• Tricalcium phosphate
• Butylated hydroxyanisole
Frequency of additives
“Cake flour” mainly stays chlorinated. At least one flour labeled “unleavened cake flour” (marketed by King Arthur Flour) is not refined, and its protein content is much higher than regular cake flour of about 9.4% (cake flour is usually between 6% and 8%). . According to King Arthur, this flour is a mixture of finely ground wheat flour and corn starch, which has a better effect than whole wheat flour (cornmeal mixed with whole-grain flour is usually replaced with cake flour when the cake flour is depleted. Not available). The final product, however, is thicker than would be the case with low-protein chlorine cake.
The United Kingdom.
All white matter and maturation agents (except for possible ascorbic acid) are banned in the United Kingdom.
The sale of flour in the US is no longer popular, and although not yet banned anywhere, the small commercial flour found at home bakers is no longer cooked.
Many types of flour that are packaged specifically for commercial bakeries are still packaged. The fine flour for sale in the local bakery is now highly prone to peroxidation or chlorine gas. Current information from Pillsbury is that their types of blended flour are treated with benzoyl peroxide and chlorine gas. The gold medal states that their blended flour is treated with benzoyl peroxide or chlorine gas, but there is no known indication of the method used to buy flour in a store.
During the flour-making process, mainly due to the bleaching process, the nutrients are lost. Some of these nutrients can be changed during refining – the result is known as rich flour
Cake flour is a very low source of gluten the protein, with 6-7% protein (5-8%) from a second source to reduce a small binding so that the cake “crumbles” easily.
Pastry flour has a very low gluten protein content, as well as 7.5-9.5% (8-9% from a second source protein binding together with more strength than cakes, but still produces produce production solid ones or crispy.
Empty or intentional flour
The whole purpose, or “AP flour”, or wholemeal flour is between the gluten protein content of 9.5-11.5% (10-12% from the second source of the protein content. It has a high protein content in many bases of bread and pizza, although bread flour and special Italian grade 00 flour are often preferred for these purposes, respectively, especially by hand bakers. Some biscuits are also prepared using this type of flour. “Plain” refers not only to the AP flour of moderate gluten content but also to its lack of any yeast-producing agent (such as puffy flour).
Bread flour is usually made from red wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the spring (winter wheat). Strong wheat contains high gluten, a protein that makes the dough thicken. Strong wheat is 11.5-13.5% (12-14% from the second source) of protein. The increased protein binds to the flour to retain the carbon dioxide released by the fermentation process, resulting in better chewing and chewier texture.
Hard is a common name for flour that contains a lot of gluten-free protein, usually referring to very strong flour, and 13.5-16% (or 14-15% from other sources) protein (16% is a protein content thought to be possible]). This flour can be used when the recipe adds ingredients that require the dough to be firmer to hold together where they are, or where energy is needed in the formation of the bread (e.g., some medium-sized displays).
Gluten-free flour is a refined gluten protein, or a 100% protein theory (although active refining does not benefit 100%) full. It is used to fortify flour as needed. For example, adding about one teaspoon of each AP flour provides a mixture that results from the protein content of bread crumbs. It is often added to cereal flour recipes to overcome the tendency of high fiber content to disrupt gluten growth, which is needed to give the bread a better rise (holding gas) qualities and chewing.
Bleach-free flour is simply flour that has not been bleached and therefore has no “white” flour color. For example, graham flour, his name, Graham, was against the use of bleaching agents, which he considered unhealthy.
In English-speaking countries, self-propagating flour (or self-brewing) is available to trade with chemical agents that add yeast already to the mixture. In the United States, it may also be pre-salted; in Britain it is not. The extra ingredients are evenly distributed throughout the flour, which facilitates the consistent rise of baked goods. This flour is often used to prepare sponge cakes, scones, muffins, etc. It was founded by Henry Jones and ratified in 1845. If the recipe requires flour you grow your own, and this is not available, the following
alternatives are possible:
• 1 cup (125 g) plain flour
• 1 teaspoon (3 g) baking powder
• (US Recipes) with 1⁄4 teaspoon (1 g or less) of salt
Flour containing gluten
Main article: Wheat flour
Wheat is the most commonly used grain for making flour. Some varieties may be called “pure” or “white”. Flour has different levels of the protein gluten. “Solid flour” or “solid flour” has a higher gluten n content than “weak” or “soft” flour. “Brown” and wholemeal flour can be made from solid or soft wheat.
• Atta flour is whole wheat flour that is essential for Indian and Pakistani cuisine, which is used in a series of bread such as roti and chapatti. It is usually made of stone loaves of bread granules, which gives it a texture that is not readily available in some flat loaves.
• Typical wheat flour (Taestivum) is the flour most commonly used in making bread. Durum wheat flour (T. durum) is the second most widely used.
• Maida flour is a finely ground wheat flour used for making various Indian bread, such as paratha and naan. Maida has widely used no slices of bread in Indian cuisine bulso central Asia and Southeast Asian cuisine. Although it is sometimes called “whole-grain flour” by Indian chefs, it is very similar to cake flour or pure starch. In India, Maida flour is used to make cakes and other baking items such as bread, biscuits, and toast.
• Noodle flour is a special blend used to make Asian-style noodles, made from wheat or rice.
• Semolina is a hardy, refined wheat durum wheat used for pasta, breakfast cereals, desserts, and couscous.
• Spelt, an ancient grain, is a hexaploid, a type of wheat. The battered dough needs to be kneaded a little harder than regular wheat or durum wheat flour. That means empty powdered flour works well in creating a soft food dough such as cakes or pastries. Cracks come out well because they are made of dough that does not need to rise when baked.
• Rye flour is used to bake sourdough traditional bread from Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Russia, the Czech Republic, Poland, and Scandinavia. Many rye breads uses a mixture of rye and wheat flour because red bred produces enough gluten. Pumpernickel bread is usually made of rye only, and it contains a mixture of rye flour and rye foods. Scale flower is used to make bread as Prinkwadnik bread.
If the flour is gluten-free, it is suitable for people with gluten-related problems, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, or wheat allergies, among others. Gluten-containing grain contamination can occur during grain harvesting, transport, milling, storage, processing, handling, and/or cooking.
• Acorn flour is made from ground/ors and can be used instead of wheat flour. It was used by Native Americans. Korean people use corn flour to make dotorimuk.
• Almond flour is made from ground almonds.
• Amaranth flour is flour made from ground amaranth seeds. It was commonly used pre-Columbian-American American cuisine and was originally cultivated by the Aztecs. It is increasingly available at specialty
• Apple powder is made by grinding apple pomace, a solid residue of apple juice.
• Banana flour has been made from raw bananas for thousands of years and is now widely known both as a gluten-free substitute for wheat flour and as a source of starchy starch.
• Bean flour is flour made from dried or ground dried beans. Garbanzo and fava bean flours are a mixture of high-quality flour and strong after flours.
• Brown rice flour is very important in Southeast Asian cuisine. Edible rice paper can be made from it.
• Buckwheat flour is used as an ingredient in many pancakes in the United States. In Japan, it is used to make a popular noodle called soba. In Russia, buckwheat flour is added to the batter of pancakes, often called caviar. Buckwheat flour is used to make crepes bretonnes in Brittany. In the days of Hindu fasting (Navaratri in particular, and Maha Shivaratri), people ate food made from buckwheat flour. Preparations vary throughout India. The most popular dishes are the ki puri and the pakora. In many northern and the tern states, the common name is kuttuka atta.
• Cassava flour is made from the roots of the cassava plant. In purified form (pure starch), it is called tapioca flour
• Chestnut flour is popular in Corsica, Périgord, and Lunigiana for bread, cakes, and pasta. It is the first ingredient in polenta, who’s, and, is also used in Corsica and other parts of the Mediterranean. Chestnut bread stays fresh for up to two weeks. In some parts of Italy, it is widely used to make desserts.
• Chickpea flour(also known as, gram very important in Indian cuisine, also in Italy, where it is used in the Ligurian farinata.
• Chuño flour is made from dried potatoes in various South American countries.
• Coconut flour is made from ground coconut meat and has a much higher fiber than any other flour, has a much lower amount of digestible carbohydrate, and thus makes an excellent choice for those who want to, limit their carbohydrate intake. It also contains a fat content of about 60 percent.
• Coffee flour is flour usually made from coffee cherries or coffee beans.
• Maize flour is popular in the South and Southwest regions of the US, Mexico, Central America, and the Punjab of India and Pakistan, where it is called makai ka atta. Cornmeal flour is commonly called cornmeal. The finely ground cornmeal that has been treated with food-grade lime is called masa harina (see masa) and is food-grade tortillas and tamales in Mexican cooking. Maize flour should never be confused with corn
starch, known as “cornflour” in British English.
• Maize is very similar to maize flour (see above) except when grinding more.
• Maize starch is a starch extracted from the endosperm of a corn kernel.
• Glutinous rice flour or sticky rice flour is used in eastern and south-eastern Asian cuisines to make tang yuan, etc.
• Hemp flour is produced by pressing hemp seed oil and grinding the residue. Hemp seeds contain about 30 percent oil and a residual of 70 percent. Hemp flour does not rise, and it is best mixed with other flour. Added to any flour by about 15-20 percent, it gives a spongy nutty texture and a green flavor.