Coffee is a beverage brewed from roasted coffee beans, and berry seeds from certain flowering plants of the coffee genus. From the fruit of the coffee plant, the seeds are separated to produce a stable, green product: raw coffee. The seeds are roasted, the process of which is converted into a useful product: roasted coffee, ground into fine particles that are usually soaked in hot water before being filtered, producing a cup of coffee.
Coffee is dark, bitter, and slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect on humans, largely due to its caffeine content. It is one of the world’s most popular beverages and can be prepared and served in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, cafe latte, or pre-brewed coffee). It is usually served hot, although cold or frozen coffee is common. Sugar, instead of sugar, milk, or cream is often used to reduce the bitter taste or to enhance the taste.
It may also be served with a coffee cake or other delicious dessert, such as donuts. A commercial center that sells refined coffee drinks is known as a coffeehouse or coffee shop (not to be confused with Dutch coffee shops that sell marijuana). Medical research shows that moderate coffee drinking is not as good or as beneficial as a stimulant for healthy adults, with ongoing research into whether long-term use has positive or negative effects.
Although coffee is now a global commodity, coffee has a long history closely related to the food culture of the Red Sea. The first reliable evidence of modern coffee drinking comes from modern-day Yemen from the inle of the 15th century in Sufi sanctuaries, where coffee seeds were first roasted and made in much the same way as modern methods. 2] Yemenis bought coffee beans in the Ethiopian Highlands through Somali coastal miners and began to grow them. By the 16th century, the beverage had spread all over the Middle East and North Africa, and it later spread to Europe. In the 20th century, coffee became a global commodity, forming different coffee cultures around the world.
Two types of coffee beans that are widely grown are C. Arabica and C. Robusta. Coffee plants are grown in more than 70 countries, mainly in the Americas, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and Africa. Since 2018, Brazil has been a major producer of coffee beans, producing 35% of the global total. Coffee is a major exporter as the official agricultural leader in many countries.  It is one of the most important exports to developing countries.
Raw, unrefined coffee is the most widely traded agricultural commodity and is one of the most widely traded commodities, second only to petroleum.  Despite coffee sales totaling billions of dollars, those who produce beans live equally poor.  Critics also point out the negative impact of the coffee industry on the environment and the cutting down on the area for coffee growing coffee-growing. Environmental costs and farmers’ income disparities are contributing to the growth of the fair trade market and live coffee. 
A view of Mocha, Yemen during the second half of the 17th century
The earliest reliable evidence of coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree dates back to the mid-15th century in the account of Ahmed al-Ghaffar in Yemen. It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in the same way as they are now prepared. Coffee was used in Sufi rallies to keep them awake because of their religious practices.
Accounts vary on the origin of the coffee plant prior to its emergence in Yemen. Originally from Ethiopia, coffee would have been introduced to Yemen by trade across the Red Sea. Another account commends Muhammad Ibn Sad for bringing a drink to Aden from the African coast. Some initial accounts claim that Ali ben Omar of Shadhili Sufi’s order was the first to introduce coffee in Arabia. According to al Shardi, Ali ben Omar may have encountered coffee while living with friends of Adal king Sadadin in 1401.
Muslim scholar Ibn Hajar al-Haytami
The famous 16th-century Muslim scholar Ibn Hajar al-Haytami notes in his writings a drink called qahwa made from the tree of Zeila. Region. Coffee was originally shipped from Ethiopia to Yemen by Somali traders from Berbera and Zeila in modern-day Somaliland, purchased from Harar and within the Abyssinian. According to Captain Haines, a former colonel in Aden (1839-1854), Mocha historically imported two-thirds of his coffee from Berbera merchants before the coffee trade in Mocha was taken over by the British-controlled the d Aden in the 19th century. A hundred years. Thereafter, much Ethiopian coffee was exported to Aden via Berbera.
Berbera not only supplies Aden with cattle and sheep with horns on a very large scale, but trade between Africa and Aden is slowly growing every year. On the coffee grounds only there is a large export, and coffee ‘Berbera’ stands in the Bombay market right now before Mocha. Coffee exported to Berbera comes from faHarrarnd from Harrar, Abyssinia, and Kaffa. It would be advantageous in all that the trade should reach Aden by one port, and Berbera is the only place on the coast where it has a protected port, watched ships can sleep in the smooth watched ers.
The 18th-century French edition of Mocha, Yemen. Somali, Jewish, and European settlements are located outside the fort. The Dutch, English, Turkish, and French commercial spaces are within the city walls.
Outside the door of the Leipzig coffee shop, there is a statue of a man wearing a Turkish dress, receiving a cup of coffee from a boy.
By the 16th century, coffee had spread throughout the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. The first coffee seeds were smuggled out of the Middle East by Sufi Baba Budan from Yemen to the Indian subcontinent at that time. Before that, all the coffee that was exported was boiled either 1919 advertisement for G Washington’s Coffee. The first instant coffee was invented by founder George Washington in 1909.In 1583, German physician Leonhard Rauwolf gave the following definition of coffee after returning from a ten-
year trek to the Near East:
A dark drink, such as ink, is helpful in combating many ailments, especially those of the stomach. Its customers take it in the morning, frankly, in a tethered earthen cup and each of them drinks from it. It is made up of water and a bunny fruit of a forest called bunny.
– Léonard Rauwolf, Travel in die Morgenländer (German)
Prosperity trade between Venice and North Africa, Egypt, and the Middle East (then the Ottoman Empire) brought many goods, including coffee, to the port of Venice. From Venice, it was introduced throughout Europe. Coffee became widely accepted after Pope Clement VIII adopted it as a Christian drink in 1600, despite demands for a ban on “Muslim beverage”. The first European coffee house was opened in Rome in 1645.
The Dutch East India Company
A can of coffee from the first half of the 20th century. From the Museo collection. The Dutch East India Company was the first to import coffee on a large scale. The Dutch later planted the plant in Java and Ceylon. The first shipment of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands took place in 1711. Through the efforts of the British East India Company, coffee also became popular in England. In a May 1637 diary, John Evelyn wrote of a delicious drink at Oxford in England, brought to him by a Balliol College student from Crete named
Nathaniel Conopios of Crete. Oxford’s Queen’s Lane Coffee House, founded in 1654, still exists today. Coffee was introduced to France in 1657, and to Austria and Poland after the Vienna War of 1683, when coffee was confiscated from defeated Turkish goods.
The Dutch East India Company
When coffee arrived in North America during the Colonial period, it was initially not as successful as it was in Europe, as alcoholic beverages became very popular. During the Revolutionary War, the demand for coffee grew so much that merchants had to collect their rare items and raise prices dramatically; this was also due to a decrease in the availability of tea from British retailers, and a common decision among many Americans to avoid drinking tea following the 1773 Boston Tea Party. After the war of 1812, when Britain temporarily banned the sale of tea, the American taste for coffee grew.
During the 18th century, coffee
Consumption declined in England, leading to the consumption of tea. This latest drink was easy to make and was cheaper with the victory of British India and the tea industry there.  During the Sail, the British Royal Navy sailors made coffee instead of melting hot bread in hot water.
Frenchman Gabriel de Clieu took a coffee plant to the French area of Martinique in the Caribbean in the 1720s,  where most of the Arabica coffee grown in the world comes from. Coffee thrived in the climate and was exported to the Americas. Coffee was grown in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) since 1734, and in 1788 it provided part of the world’s coffee.
The conditions under which the slaves worked in the coffee plantations were a catalyst for the coming Haitian Revolution. The coffee industry has never been better. It made a brief return in 1949 when Haiti became the third largest coffee producer in the world but declined soon after.
Coffee was introduced in Brazil in 1727
Meanwhile, coffee was introduced in Brazil in 1727, although its cultivation did not gain momentum until independence in 1822. Later, large tropical forests were cleared for coffee growing, first in Rio de Janeiro and later in São Paulo. Brazil went from being basically coffee-free in 1800 to becoming a major regional producer in 1830, becoming the world’s largest producer in 1852. In 1910-2 From Brazil exported about 70 percent of the world’s coffee, Colombia, Guatemala, and Venezuela exported the remaining 30%, while Old World production was less than 5% of exports countries to other countries.
Farming was taken over by many Central American countries in the latter half of the 19th century, and almost all involved massive migration and exploitation of indigenous peoples. Difficult conditions led to many uprisings, coups, and blood pressure on farmers. Notable was Costa Rica, where a shortage of qualified workers prevented the construction of large farms. Small farms and conditions of equality calmed the turmoil during the 19th and 20th centuries.
The rapid growth of coffee production in South America during the second half of the 19th century was likened to a growth in consumption in developed countries, although nowhere has this growth been announced as in the United States, where the highest growth rate was combined. Doubling individual consumption between 1860 and 1920.
Although the United States was not the only coffee drinker at the time (the Nordic countries, Belgium, and the Netherlands all had comparable or higher levels of individual consumption), due to their relative size. , was already the largest consumer of coffee in the world by 1860, and, by 1920, nearly half of all coffee produced worldwide was consumed in the US.
Coffee has become an important commodity in many developing lands. More than 100 million people in the developing world rely on coffee as their main source of income. It has become a major export and backbone of African countries such as Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, and Ethiopia
According to one legend, the ancestors of the modern Oromo people in the Jimma area of Ethiopia were the first to recognize the powerful effect of the coffee plant. However, day Wusab, about 90 kilometers east of Zabid, Yemen) Hungry, Omar chewed the berries in a nearby tree but found that theirs were too much.
He tried to roast the seeds to improve the taste, but it was difficult. Then she tried to boil them to soften the seeds, resulting in a sweet-smelling brown liquid. After drinking the liquid, Omar was revived and lived for days. As news of the “miracle drug” reached Mocha, Omar was asked to return he made holy.
Initially, coffee cultivation was practiced in the shade of trees, which were home to many animals and insects. Remnant forest trees were used for this purpose, but many species have been replanted. These include legumes of Acacia, Albizia, Cassia, Erythrina, Gliricidia, Inga, and Leucaena, as well as non-legume nitrogen-fixing sheoaks. Casuarina, and the silky oak Grevillea Robusta.
Traditional shade method
This method is often referred to as the traditional shade method, or “grown in the shade”. Beginning in the 1970s, many farmers changed their production method to solar farming, where coffee was grown in rows on a Sunday with little or no forest area. This causes the berries to ripen faster and the trees to produce higher yields, but it also requires deforestation and more use of fertilizers and pesticides, which harm the environment and cause health problems.
Fertilizer produces a lot of coffee
Fertilized coffee plants grown on fertilizer produce a lot of coffee, although unfermented shade plants often produce more than unfermented plants: the response to fertilizer is much greater in full sun. Although regular coffee production causes the berries to slow down and produce lower yields, the quality of the coffee is said to be higher. In addition, the traditional shady route provides a habitat for mana y species of wildlife.
Proponents of shade planting say that environmental problems such as deforestation, pest contamination, habitat destruction, and the destruction of soil and water are the negative effects of sun-dried practices.
The American Birding Association,
The American Birding Association, the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, National Arbor Day Foundation, and the Rainforest Alliance have led a campaign to ‘grow shade’ with natural coffee, which can be continuously harvested. Plants for shady coffee show greater biodiversity than full-day solar systems, and those that are farther away from the continuous forest are poorly compared to tpoortraditionto al forests that can be disturbed in terms of habitat in some species of birds.
Coffee production uses a large volume of water
Coffee production uses a large volume of water. On average it takes 140 liters (37 U.S. gal) of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee, producing 1 kg (2.2 lb) of roasted coffee in Africa, South America, or Asia requires 26,400 litters ( 7,000 U.S. gal) water. [Specification required] Coffee is often grown in countries where water is scarce, such as Ethiopia.
Used coffee grounds
Used coffee grounds may be used for composting or as a tree cover. Species and acid-loving plants such as green berries are especially appreciated. Some coffee shops are developing programs to make better use of these reasons, including the Starbucks project “Grounds for your Garden”, and community-sponsored
programs such as “Ground to Ground”.
Climate change may have a significant impact on coffee yields during the 21st century, as in Nicaragua and Ethiopia, which could lose more than half of the world’s arable coffee plantations (Arabica).
As of 2016, at least 34% of global coffee production complied with voluntary stability standards such as Fairtrade, UTZ, and 4C (The Common Code for the Coffee Community).
This category is part of stable coffee.
Stable coffee is a plant that is grown and marketed because of its sustainability. These include organic coffee as a biological, fair trade, and Rainforest Alliance. Coffee has several stages that are used to determine the participation of farmers (or supply chain) at a variety of social, environmental, and economic levels. Coffee suitable for such categories and independently licensed or certified by an accredited foreign company is collectively referred to as “continuous coffee”. The term has entered the dictionary and the category has grown rapidly into its multi-billion dollar industry with potentially significant effects on other things as
demand and awareness increase.
Map of coffee production
Green coffee production – 2020
Country Production (60-kg bag)
Source: ICO 
By 2020, the global production of raw coffee beans was 175,647,000 60 kg bags, led by Brazil with 39% of the total (table). Vietnam, Indonesia, and Colombia were some of the major producers.
As of 2021, no artificial coffee products are publicly available but many bio-economy companies are reported to have produced the first batches that are very cellular and close to the sale.
Coffeeberries and their seeds go through a number of processes before they become standard roasted . coffee is traditionally harvested by hand by choice; a hard-working method, involving the selection of berries only in high ripeness. Usually, the plants are formed, where all the berries are harvested simultaneously, whether ripe or mechanically. After brewing, green coffee is processed in one of two ways — the dry process, which is usually simpler and less labor-intensive, and the wet process, which involves mass fermentation, uses higher water rates and usually produces softer coffee.